Welcome to today’s class!!

We are thrilled to have you in our class!!

In today’s Physical and Health Education class, we will be focusing on Revision 

It’s that time of the year we consider all we have learned so far, so as to refresh our memories. Let’s learn!

Javelin Throw

javelin throw

The Javelin Throw has been used as a mode of hunting and warfare since the days of our forefathers. Throwing a javelin or a spear is almost as old as human civilization itself. The activity slowly evolved into the track and field sport of javelin throw we know today.

The Ancient Olympic Games in 708 BC, perhaps, is the earliest recorded appearance of javelin throw as a sport at any major event. At the time, javelin throw was not a standalone sport but part of the multi-sport pentathlon event.

Javelin throw became a part of the modern-day Olympics from 1908 after the men’s javelin throw event was introduced in London. Incidentally, it was the last of the throw events, after shot put, hammer and discus, to be included.



Somatotype in science is the concept of body types that was first proposed about 80 years ago. Today, experts in the field of Medical science are now questioning the idea that body type is unchangeable. 

It is important to understand that inheritance determines much of your body structure and metabolism. But with skillful guidance and determination, you can rise above the predetermined body type and achieve your body shape, health, and fitness desires.

What Is an Endomorph Body Type?

Endomorphs have softer bodies with curves. They have a wide waist and hips and large bones, though they may or may not be overweight. Their weight is often in their hips, thighs, and lower abdomen. Endomorphs often have lots of body fat and muscle and tend to gain weight easily

Endomorphs have narrow shoulders and fat deposits in the lower abdomen, hips, and thighs. This distribution of body weight and fat makes it challenging to reduce weight and needs precise training methods. Of course, you must combine these with a suitable diet to lose weight.

Exercise is crucial for endomorphs. It helps build muscle and enhance metabolism. The endomorph somatotype comes with a slower metabolism and additional fat. You must commit to a lifelong exercise plan to achieve and sustain lean body mass.

On the other hand, Ectomorph, a human somatotype (physical type) tending toward linearity, as determined by the since discredited physique-classification system developed in the 1940s by American psychologist W.H. Sheldon. Sheldon linked ectomorph to certain character traits, an idea that today is considered pseudoscience, unsupported by scientific evidence.

Muscles II


As we have come to shockingly know in our previous class, we all have more than 600 muscles in our bodies. Different types of muscles have different jobs. Some muscles help you run, jump or perform delicate tasks like threading a needle. Other muscles allow you to breathe or digest food. Your heart is a hard-working muscle that beats thousands of times a day.

Muscles are soft tissues. Many stretchy fibers make up your muscles. 

Many disorders, injuries and diseases can affect how muscles work. These conditions can cause muscle pain, muscle spasms or muscle weakness. More severe disorders can lead to paralysis. 

To keep your muscles healthy, you should focus on staying healthy overall:

  • Get plenty of exercise: Staying active can keep all of your muscles strong, including your heart. Try to do a combination of cardiovascular activity and weight-bearing exercises. Talk to your provider about an exercise program that’s right for you. To avoid injuries, be sure to warm up properly before exercise. You’re less likely to injure muscles that are warm.
  • Eat right and make smart choices: Be sure to eat a balanced diet to keep your muscles strong. Avoid sodium and trans fats (such as in fried foods), which can lead to heart disease. If you smoke, talk to your provider about a plan to help you quit.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Carrying extra pounds can cause injuries. It also increases your risk of health problems, including high blood pressure. Talk to your provider about the most appropriate weight for your body and lifestyle. If you carry extra weight, ask your provider about a weight control plan.
  • Rest when you need to: Give your muscles time to heal after a strain. You should also rest if you feel sore after vigorous exercise. Allowing your muscles time to repair and rebuild can help you avoid injury.
  • Schedule regular screenings: See your provider regularly. Get screened for diseases that put you at a higher risk of muscle problems. Staying on top of your health allows your provider to detect problems early. That’s when treatments are more effective.

In summary, Muscles are soft tissues. Many stretchy fibers make up your muscles. 

Nervous System


The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. The proper functioning of these nerves ensures that each organ system, such as the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and immune systems, can adequately communicate with one another.

The nervous system includes the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord, whereas the PNS is made up of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

The Brain

On average, the brain weighs between 1.3 to 1.4 kg, with about 60% of the brain consisting of fat. The remaining 40% of the brain consists of protein, water, carbohydrates, and salts.

The brain can be divided into four distinct regions: the brainstem, cerebrum, cerebellum, and diencephalon. Taken together, these different areas of the brain control thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, hunger, temperature, and all other processes that occur within the body.

The brain consists of both gray and white matter. Gray matter, which is darker in color and surrounds white matter, consists of neuron somas, and round central cell bodies. Conversely, white matter, which is lighter in color and comprises the inner portion of the brain, is primarily made up of axons, the long stems that connect neurons.

The Brainstem

The brainstem, located in the middle of the brain, is the stalk-like part of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord and is only about one inch long. This region regulates essential functions such as blood pressure, breathing, heart rhythms, and swallowing.

The brainstem can be further subdivided into the midbrain, pons, and medulla.

The midbrain, otherwise known as the mesencephalon, is crucial for regulating eye movements, emotions, hearing, and long-term memory. 

The pons is the starting location for four of the 12 cranial nerves. Some of the different functions regulated by the pons include facial movements, hearing, breathing, and balance.

Ectomorph is characterized by a tall and slim body type, with narrow shoulders and a low muscle mass percentage.

In general, people with an ectomorph body type have a fast metabolism and tend to lose weight easily. However, they do have more difficulty building muscle. 


Give five rules that must be followed in Javelin Throw. 


Reading Assignment

What is SomatoType? Explain why Sheldon’s theory is no longer acceptable. 


Weekend Assignment

Explain five functions of the muscles and how to keep the muscles healthy. 


We hope you enjoyed today’s class. See you in the next class!

Let us know your thoughts and questions in the comment section, and we will attend to them as fast as we can.

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