Speech Work: /Iᶕ/ and /aI/,  Grammar: Tenses of Active and Passive Voice Comprehension: Page 16


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In today’s class, we will be talking about Speech Work: /Iᶕ/ and /aI/,  Grammar: Tenses of Active and Passive Voice Comprehension: Page 16, etc. Enjoy the class!

Speech Work: /Iᶕ/ and /aI/,  Grammar: Tenses of Active and Passive Voice Comprehension

SPEECH WORK: /iᶕ/ & /ai/


                  /iᶕ/                                                    /ai/

  • seer, bear, union                                   bye, pies
  • near, idea, India                                    buy, bite, night
  • glorious, curious                                   isle, file, tiles,

EVALUATION: Give ten more examples on each pair.



Tenses occur only in verbs although it is usual to talk about the past, present and other tenses. It refers to the change that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate time. This could be either in the active or passive voice.

Sentences written in the active voice are easier to understand than sentences written in the passive voice. Switching the passive voice into the active voice is straightforward, but it requires a bit of practice. In the equivalency table below, notice that the tense of the verb to be in the passive voice is always the same as the tense of the main verb in the active voice. In order to use the active voice, you will have to make the subject of the action explicit.

Tense   Active voice    Passive voice   Active sentence                Passive equivalent
Simple Present keep is kept I keep the butter in the The butter is kept in the fridge
Present Continuous is keeping is being kept John is keeping my house My house is being kept tidy
Simple Past          kept was kept Mary kept her schedule meticulously Mary’s schedule was kept meticulously
Past Continuous was keeping was being kept The theatre was keeping a seat for you A seat was being kept for you





The controlled cultivation and harvest of aquatic plants or animals such as edible marine algae, clams, oysters, and salmon.


The centre of a centrepin reel’s spool. The arbour can also be a knot.

Arbour knot:

A knot used for tying backing to the arbour of the fly reel.


A pear shape lead weight developed by the late Dick Walker used for fishing

Artificial Baits:

It lures or flies made of wood, plastic, metal, feathers, or similar inert material


This is an additive that is used with the bait or mixed with the ground bait. Flavour attractors can be sweet or spicy.


The back shot can be the piece of shot placed up the line behind a sliding leger or feeder or is a piece of shot placed on the line behind a float to help keep it steady in windy conditions. The piece of the shot is placed about a foot away from the float tip and is usually a piece of a shot from the float rig so it doesn’t sink.


The casting of a line in a direction opposite to the direction the fly is intended to go. The backward counterpart of the forward cast which acts to create a bending action on the fly rod, setting up the conditions to generate the forward cast and present the fly.

Backing line:

An old-line or string padding that is attached to a reel to fill up the spool before attaching the line.


An area of a river that is sometimes isolated.

Bagging up:

Catching lots of fish during a fishing session.

Bag limit:

The fishery restriction in the number of fish that an angler may retain, on a per-trip or daily basis. Generally pertaining to trout. Also known as the Creel limit.

Bail arm:

The wire part of a fixed-spool reel that guides the line on the spool.


It is anything used on the hook to entice and capture the fish.

Bait band:

It is used with boilies and pellets etc. A small elastic band that is wrapped around the bait and the hook is passed under the band or nicked through it so that the bait hangs from the side of the base of the hook. The bait bands are available in a variety of sizes to suit different sized baits.

Bait boat:

A remote-controlled boat used mainly for carp fishing by carp anglers or by specialist anglers to place both their baited rig and loose feed, such as boilies, accurately at distances unachievable by casting.

Bait box:

It is used for carrying your bait such as maggots.


A clip that holds the baited hook during the cast.

Bait dropper:

A device used to put hook bait samples down to the bottom of your swim. It is basically a cage with a door on the side held closed with a latch. When lowered down to the bottom the latch is pushed up and opens the cage door letting the bait fall out.


Any fish that is of primary prey to a larger fish.

Bait needle:

A needle that has had one side of the eye removed making a small hook. When used for baiting a hair rig you put the boilies or whatever bait you want to use onto this needle and then hook the hair rig loop onto the needle and pull the bait off the needle and onto the hair rig line. Then you put a bit of grass or boilie stop through the loop to hold the bait on, pull the bait down to it and you are ready to go.


Used especially by carp or specimen anglers this is an open-faced reel with a rear drag system that has a lever at the back. The line can be pulled off freely by a hooked fish and when the lever is activated the normal drag mechanism is engaged


A special well in a boat that holds the bait.

Ball bearings:

A small metal ball added to the mechanical mechanism of high-quality reels to make the retrieve smoother. Normally the more ball bearings a reel has the higher quality.

Balling up:

Throwing in lots of balls of ground bait into your swim such as at the start of a bream fishing session.


A type of wood floats used to be made of and still are in some cases, several lures are also manufactured from balsa wood. This wood is very light, yet highly buoyant.


The ground next to a body of water.

Bank fishing:

Fishing from the bank of a river, lake or other water as opposed to fishing from a boat


A straight rod that is pointed at one end and is threaded at the other end. The pointed is pushed into the ground and into the threaded end is screwed a rod rest, keepnet or bait alarm. A reed cutter can be screwed into a bank stick making it into a long

Evaluation: Use a dictionary to discover more words




These are the most important elements to remember when it comes to description:

  • The reader needs description to paint the picture of a location or scene in their head, but too many bogs down the story slow the pace and detract from the forward movement of the plot.
  • It’s essential to describe your characters as soon as possible after they’re introduced. But, don’t over-describe them – let the reader fill in their own details, this enables them to cement a picture of the character in their mind.
  • Use the five senses as much as possible, think about what your character can hear, see, smell. Think about touch and taste. Don’t use too many senses in each scene, but use them to paint a real, tangible picture.
  • Use the colour well.
  • Practice writing description – e.g. describe characters whose pictures you have found in magazines or describe a room you’ve visited.
  • Don’t overdo description – remember the join-the-dots rule – let the reader fill in some detail for themselves.
  • Metaphors can be very powerful in the description, evoking a mood or theme that runs through your story. Don’t forget, if you’ve heard it before it’s a cliché – to be avoided at all costs – you are a writer, be creative, come up with your own metaphors and similes.
  • Use the description to develop mood – a stormy day, a bright white apartment.
  • Tie description to action to show the reader rather than tell them what is happening.
  • Be aware of what you can assume the reader knows (e.g. the shape of a newspaper), and what they don’t know.
  • Quirky details are good – they stand out in the reader’s mind. Do your research and build on a small detail to inform the reader about your characters and locations.

Instruction: The author wants to do more than telling you about her teacher. She wants to create in your mind a clear mental picture of whom her favourite teacher is.  As you read, look for ways the author uses language to create a picture for you.



My favourite teacher was Mrs Ruby who had taught me English for two years. She had studied in America and came back to Hong Kong to be an English teacher. She had sparkle eyes and blond hair. She’s just a bit taller than I was. She always smiled at us as we saw each other in the hallway at school. She seemed very strict when the first I met her. However, we had a lot of fun during her classes as we had been told the jokes in English. She had skills at teaching, sense of humour, friendly, patient and easygoing.

I had had her classes when I was in grade 10. I got good marks on it since then. She gave us tons of assignments which were for improving our English. She’s very patient and enthusiastic to teach us whenever we had questions in her classes. Moreover, she would stay at school after school finished for hours to solve the problems that we had in her class.

She would spend her private time to teach us western penmanship which was using two pencils and tightened them together with rubber bands. Then we could draw a letter with them. It’s amazing. I learnt it while I had lunch with her. She would talk about her life also during lunch and I found we had a lot in common. She liked eating Chinese and Japanese. Her favourite band was Westlife as I was. She always listened to pop music and singing karaoke. She said that it would be the way to be easier communicating with her students. She’s always friendly and easygoing.

She encouraged us to do voluntary work after school or at weekends. She was in charge of the YMCA and led a group of students to do lots of different kinds of services. Such as cleaning houses for seniors who lived by themselves; selling stickers for charity; leading blind people to walk in the street regularly and planting bushes for the protesting environment organization. She’s a very helpful person. 

EVALUATION: Discuss the elements of a descriptive essay as used in the passage

  • Effective English, book 1. Page 193. Test for Continuous Assessment.
  • Active and Passive Voice Exercise.

Sentences are given in the active voice. Change them into the passive voice.

  1. He teaches English.
  2. The child is eating bananas.
  3. She is writing a letter.
  4. The master punished the servant.
  5. He was writing a book.
  6. Who wrote this letter?
  7. Somebody cooks a meal every day.
  8. He wore a blue shirt.
  9. May God bless you with happiness!
  10. They are building a house.
  • Write a descriptive essay on your favourite pet. 
  1. Effective English, book 1. Page 133.Practice.
  2. Active and Passive Voice Exercise.

Rewrite the following in the passive voice.

  1. Who wrote this letter?
  2. Somebody cooks a meal every day.
  3. He wore a blue shirt.
  4. May God bless you with happiness!
  5. They are building a house.
  6. I have finished the job.
  7. I sent the report yesterday.
  8. She bought a diamond necklace.
  9. Somebody had stolen my pen


In our next class, we will be talking about Speech Work: Introduction to Consonant sounds (twelve), Grammar: The Use of Active and Passive Voice with examples, etc.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

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