Comprehension: A Conversation, Page 43, Grammar/Structure: Verbs- Definition, Identification with examples


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about grammar: verbs, etc. Enjoy the class!

Speech Work:

Vowels /i:/

Vowels /i:/


  1. /i:/ Seat, meet, Police, Seize, Read

Field, key, quay, People, amoeba

Vowel contrast

       /i:/                                                                                                          /I/
  1. seat                                                                                                                               Sit
  2. deep                                                                                                                             did
  3. heat                                                                                                                              hit
  4. feet                                                                                                                                fit
  5. read                                                                                                                              rid
  6. bid                                                                                                                                 bead
  7. dip                                                                                                                                 deep
  8. lip                                                                                                                                   leap

There is a great difference between /i:/ and the short /I/. This difference is shown by keeping the tongue longer in the same position for the pronunciation of /I:/ than you will do for the pronunciation of /I/.

Evaluation: words

  1. Find five pairs of words that can show the contrast between the short /I/ and the long /I:/ as in the examples above.

Reading Assignment

Vowel contrast – /I:/ and /I/


Oral English for schools and colleges. Page 16


Structure-function of verbs

Vowels /i:/ classnotesng


A verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. Verbs come from the Latin, verbum, a word. It is so-called because it is the most important word in a sentence.

Functions of verbs

A verb may tell us:

  1. What a person or thing does
  • The clock strikes.
  • As Anthony laughs.
  1. What is done to a person or thing
  • The window is broken.
  • Harry is scolded.
  1. What a person or thing is
  • The cat is dead.
  • I feel sorry.
  • Glass is brittle

A verb is a word used to tell or assert something about some person or thing.

A verb often consists of more than one word as,

  1. The girls were singing.
  2. I have learnt my lesson
  3. The watch has been found.

Auxiliary verbs:

These are helping verbs. They cannot stand on their own. They help to form the tenses of verbs e.g.

  1. I have written it
  2. She has done it
  3. They are going
  4. They were going
  5. She is dancing

Modal Auxiliaries

These express ideas such as possibility, probability, ability, certainty, willingness, obligation, permission, necessity, request, compulsion etc.


  1. I can carry the load (ability)
  2. We may see tomorrow (probability)
  3. I must  do the assignment (certainty)
  4. They will come (possibility)
  5. You must do your assignment now (compulsion)
  6. You can go there. (Permission)


Say the function of each of the underlined verb in each of the sentences below.

  1. Harry is tall
  2. Bola sings
  3. Olawale was singing
  4. I can swim
  5. You may go home


English Grammar for Junior Secondary Schools. Page 47 to 50


Present Tense


A verb that refers to the present time is said to be in the present tense.


  1. I write letters to him.
  2. I run errands for my mother
  3. We pray together every morning
  4. Many types so fast
  5. She goes to school.

More verbs (Present tense)

Present Tense                              Past Tense
  1. Broadcast                                        broadcast
  2. Rid                                                   rid
  3. Split                                                 split
  4. Burst                                                burst
  5. Destroy                                           destroyed
  6. Hang (put to death)                        hanged
  7. Flow                                                flowed
  8. Fund                                               funded
  9. Shine                                              shone
Present Tense                                Past Tense
  1. Win                                                           Won
  2. Deal                                                          dealt
  3. Wear                                                         wore
  4. Creep                                                        crept
  5. Weave                                                       wove
  6. Mean                                                         meant


Pick five present verbs and make a sentence with each of them


English Grammar for J.S.S pages 35 – 40


Comprehension and Vocabulary Development


The passage is a conversation. The principal came around to see what the boys with Mr Etonye were doing. Mr Etonye explained to him that they were learning some important skills in woodwork.

Eyo was making a bookshelf. He had marked out one end of it when the principal came. He explained to the principal that after marking out the piece of wood, he would cut it out.


Practice 2(1-7)

Vocabulary – Words to do with tools

  1. Woodwork means making things out of wood.
  2. Carpentry also means making things out of wood.
  3. A saw is a tool for cutting wood.
  4. A plane is a tool for taking shavings off the wood.
  5. A hammer is a tool for driving nails into wood.
  6. A ruler is for measuring and drawing straight lines
  7. A drill is a tool for making round holes.
  8. Sandpaper is for making wood very smooth.
  9. Many tools have a blade and a handle.

When the blade is blunt, the carpenter sharpens it. That is, he makes it sharp again.


Effective English for J.S.S. 1. Page 43


Literature – Prose and its elements

The prose is a long narrative with a wide range of characters, events and experiences, written in a straight forward language. 

Elements of prose (story)

Elements of fiction and elements of a story, in general, can be used by the reader to increase their enjoyment and understanding of different literary pieces. Once students are aware that all stories have elements of character, setting, plot, theme, point of view, style, and tone; they can be encouraged to ask themselves to identify the characteristics of each for a particular story. The more familiar they become with the different kinds of elements the better they will understand and critically analyze stories.

  1. Character: Character is the mental, emotional, and social qualities to distinguish one entity from another (people, animals, spirits, automatons, pieces of furniture, and other animated objects). Character development is the change that a character undergoes from the beginning of a story to the end. Young children can note this. The importance of a character to the story determines how fully the character is developed. Characters can be primary, secondary, minor, or main.
  2. Plot: Plot is the order in which things move and happen in a story. Chronological order is when a story relates events in the order in which they happened. Flashback is when the story moves back in time.

Explain the meaning of each of the following.

  1. Characterization
  2. Plot
  3. Setting
  4. Language


Topic: Difference between Narrative Essays and Descriptive Essays


Narrative and Descriptive essay are two different types of essay writing. The clear difference between them can be highlighted in terms of the writer’s objective. A narrative essay usually tells the writer’s experiences with the reader. This highlights that a narrative allows the reader to immerse in a story that is composed of a sequence of events. But a descriptive essay is quite different from a narrative essay, mainly because it does not engage in relating a story but merely on providing a descriptive account of something or someone to the reader. This is the main difference between a narrative and a descriptive essay. 

General Evaluation

  1. Write on an essay topic: My Favorite Teacher
  2. Write on the essay topic: An Unforgettable Experience.
  3. Write a short note on the elements of a prose

Weekend Assignment

  1. Write twenty verbs with their past and past participle forms.
  2. Give five examples each of the following types of verbs: Transitive, Intransitive,


In our next class, we will be talking about Comprehension: Unit 6, page 79. Two good Friends, Grammar:  Adjectives: Definition, Identification.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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