Speech Work: / a:/, Comprehension: Unit 8, page 103. Every Man and Death


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about speech work: / a:/, etc. Enjoy the class!

Letter writing

Letter writing classnotes.ng

Letter writing is the art of communicating by writing one’s requests, feelings, ideas, opinions and so on to someone as if the person were physically present.

Types of letter

There are three major types of letters:

  1. Formal letter
  2. Informal letter
  3. Semi-formal letter
  • Formal Letter:

Another name for the formal letter is official letters. They are letters we write to people in their official positions.

Formal letters can be in the form of applications for admission or employment requests, official queries and replies to them, letters by students to the head of their schools, letters to local government chairman, letters to commissioner or minister of Education.

Features of a formal letter
  • Writer’s Address: This should be written at the top right corner of the page
  • Receiver’s Address: This is written on the line following the date on the left-hand side of the page
  • Salutation: This is the greeting which comes after the receiver’s address.

Dear Sir,

Dear Madam,

  • Heading or Topic or Title: This comes directly after the salutation but not on the same line.
  • Body of the letter: Here, go straight to what the question says you should do. There is no room for exchange of pleasantries or personal matters.

Subscript (complimentary close)

Yours faithfully,


Chioma Aloziem.

  • Informal letter:

Informal letters are personal letters. They are the letters we write to people who are very familiar to us such people as our parents, relatives, friends, classmates and other people with whom we have a close relationship.

Features of an informal letter
  • Writer’s address: This should be written at the top right corner of the page.
  • Salutation: Dear Peter,

Dear Kemi,

Dear father,

  • Body of the letter: This is the content of the letter.
  • Subscript (Complimentary close):

Yours sincerely



Yours affectionately,


  • Semi-formal letters:

These are letters we write to people who are not total strangers to us but are not close enough to us to deserve a personal letter. They are people like our teachers, distant aunties and uncles, family doctors, priests etc.

Features of a semi-formal letter
  • Writers address: This is written at the top right corner of the page
  • Salutation: Dear Mr Ninani,

Dear Uncle Jude,

  • Body of the letter: This is the content of the letter.
  • Subscript:

Yours sincerely,

Ibrahim Shethma


List the features of (a) formal letters (b) Informal letters (c) Semi-formal letters

Reading Assignment: Letter writing

Reference: College Essays for Basic 7 pages 81 -83


Literature – Introduction to for folktale

Content: Folktales (or Fairy Tales)

Folktales are stories that grew out of the lives and imaginations of the people, or folk. They have always been children’s favourite type of folk literature. Their popularity springs from their imaginative characters, their supernatural elements, and their focus on action, their simple sense of justice, their happy endings, and the fundamental wisdom they contain. Many people use the terms folktale and fairy tale interchangeable, though few of these tales contain fairies. “Fairy tales are unreal but they are not untrue; they reflect essential developments and conditions of man’s existence” (cited in Lüthi, 1976, Once Upon a Time: On the Nature of Fairy Tales, p. 70)

Most Prevalent Kinds of Folktales (note that some folktales have characteristics of two or more folktale categories):

  1. Animal tales are perhaps the oldest of all folktales. They are part myth, part fable, and part fairy tales. They play significant roles in early stories and legends. Talking animals appear in many European folktales. For example, “The Three Little Pigs” and “Little Red Riding Hood”.
  2. Wonder tales (also known as fairy tales) are the best known of the traditional folktales. They are stories of supernatural wonders typically depicting the conflict between good and evil. Most conclude with the triumph of virtue and happy marriage. In fairy tales, the supernatural wonder is derived from either a magical person (a fairy godmother, a wicked witch), a magical object (a wondrous beanstalk, a talking mirror, a magic lamp) or an enchantment (a miraculous sleep that lasts until love’s first kiss). For example, “Cinderella”, “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs”, “Sleeping Beauty” and “Jack and the Beanstalk”
  3. Cumulative tales are the ones in which successive additions are made to a repetitive plotline. They are generally very simple in plot and brief, for with each addition, the entire sequence is repeated. For example, “The Gingerbread Man” and “Goldilocks and the Three Bears”.
  4. Pourquoi tales (“Pourquoi” means “why” in French) seeks to explain natural phenomena. They provide primitive explanations for the many “why” questions early humans asked. They are found throughout the world and especially popular in African and Native American folklore. There is a strong connection between Pourquoi tales and myths; however, the setting in Pourquoi tales is earthly and deities play no role in Pourquoi tales as they do in myths. For example, “Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky” (from Southern Nigeria), “Where Stories Come From” (from Zulu), and “Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People’s Ears” (1976) (see the video at Prairie School Television).
  5. Noodlehead tales are light-hearted tales about silly people doing silly things. These tales are popular because of their pure nonsense and jocularity, and sometimes we enjoy the triumph of the good-hearted simpleton over the craftier evil characters of the story. For example, “Hans in Luck” by the Grimm brothers and “The Three Wishes” by Joseph Jacobs.

Evaluation: What do you understand by the word, “folktales”?

General Evaluation

  1. Briefly write the format of a formal, informal and semi-formal letter.
  2. Mention and explain the types of folktales you know.

Weekend Assignment

  1. Study the folktales mentioned above, choose one, and a story.
  2. Write a formal letter to the supervisor of your school, suggesting that the school library be freshly equipped with lively and modern books.


In our next class, we will be talking about Comprehension: Unit 9, Composition: Features of an Informal Letter with sample model.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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