Speech Work: Introduction to Consonant sounds (twelve), Grammar: The Use of Active and Passive Voice with examples


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about speech work: introduction to consonant sounds, etc. Enjoy the class!


Consonant Sounds classnotes.ng


Introduction to Consonant Sounds

  1. /p/ as in pot, happy, nap, etc.
  2. /b/ as in bag, rubber, rub, etc.
  3. /t/ as in tape, heater, seet, etc.
  4. /d/ as in day, dip, ridder, hide, etc.
  5. /k/ as in kite, mark, pack, etc.
  6. /g/ as in get, rag, target, etc.
  7. /tʃ/ as in child, cheap, itch, teach, etc.
  8. /dʒ/ as in job, joy, page, etc.
  9. /f/ as in fan, fork, cough, etc.
  10. / v/ as in van, river, live, etc.
  11. /s/ as in snake, place, sip, etc.
  12. /z/ as in zip, razor, has, etc.


From the words below, choose the /p/ sound that is not articulated

  • Pneumonia
  • press
  • cupboard
  • receipt
  • psalm





Tense   Active voice    Passive voice   Active sentence                Passive equivalent
Simple Present keep is kept I keep the butter in the The butter is kept in the fridge
Present Continuous is keeping is being kept John is keeping my house My house is being kept tidy
Simple Past          kept was kept Mary kept her schedule meticulously Mary’s schedule was kept meticulously
Past Continuous was keeping was being kept The theatre was keeping a seat for you A seat was being kept for you



Mixed Exercise on Passive Voice

Rewrite the sentences in the passive voice.

  1. John collects money. –
  2. Anna opened the window. –
  3. We have done our homework. –
  4. I will ask a question. –
  5. He can cut out the picture. –
  6. The sheep ate a lot. –
  7. We do not clean our rooms. –
  8. William will not repair the car. –
  9. Did Sue draw this circle? –
  10. Could you feed the dog? –



cooking terms classnotes.ng

Content: Words Related to Kitchen

  • AL DENTE: Italian term used to describe pasta that is cooked until it offers a slight resistance to the bite.
  • BAKE: To cook by dry heat, usually in the oven.
  • BARBECUE: Usually used generally to refer to grilling done outdoors or over an open charcoal or wood fire. More specifically, barbecue refers to long, slow direct- heat cooking, including liberal basting with a barbecue sauce.
  • BASTE: To moisten foods during cooking with pan drippings or special sauce to add flavour and prevent drying.
  • BATTER: A mixture containing flour and liquid, thin enough to pour.
  • BEAT: To mix rapidly to make a mixture smooth and light by incorporating as much air as possible.
  • BLANCH: To immerse in rapidly boiling water and allow to cook slightly.
  • BLEND: To incorporate two or more ingredients thoroughly.
  • BOIL: To heat a liquid until bubbles break continually on the surface.
  • BROIL: To cook on a grill under strong, direct heat.
  • CARAMELIZE: To heat sugar to turn it brown and give it a special taste.
  • CHOP: To cut solids into pieces with a sharp knife or other chopping devices.
  • CLARIFY: To separate and remove solids from a liquid, thus making it clear.
  • CREAM: To soften a fat, especially butter, by beating it at room temperature. Butter and sugar are often creamed together, making a smooth, soft paste.
  • CURE: To preserve meats by drying and salting and/or smoking.
  • DEGLAZE: To dissolve the thin glaze of juices and brown bits on the surface of a pan in which food has been fried, sautéed or roasted. To do this, add liquid and stir and scrape over high heat, thereby adding flavour to the liquid for use as a sauce.
  • DEGREASE: To remove fat from the surface of stews, soups, or stock. Usually cooled in the refrigerator so that fat hardens and is easily removed.
  • DICE: To cut food in small cubes of uniform size and shape.
  • DISSOLVE: To cause a dry substance to pass into solution in a liquid.
  • DREDGE: To sprinkle or coat with flour or other fine substance.
  • DRIZZLE: To sprinkle drops of liquid lightly over food in a casual manner.
  • DUST: To sprinkle food with dry ingredients. Use a strainer or a jar with a perforated cover, or try the good, old-fashioned way of shaking things together in a paper bag.
  • FILLET: As a verb, to remove the bones from meat or fish. A fillet (or filet) is the piece of flesh after it has been boned.
  • FLAKE: To break lightly into small pieces.
  • FLAMBE’: To flame foods by dousing in some form of potable alcohol and setting alight.
  • FOLD: To incorporate a delicate substance, such as whipped cream or beaten egg whites, into another substance without releasing air bubbles. Cut down through mixture with a spoon, whisk, or fork; go across the bottom of the bowl, up and over, close to the surface. The process is repeated while slowing rotating the bowl until the ingredients are thoroughly blended.
  • FRICASSEE: To cook by braising; usually applied to fowl or rabbit.
  • FRY: To cook in hot fat. To cook in a fat is called pan-frying or sautéing; to cook in a one-to-two inch layer of hot fat is called shallow-fat frying; cooking in a deep layer of hot fat is called deep-fat frying.
  • GARNISH: To decorate a dish both to enhance its appearance and to provide a flavorful foil. Parsley, lemon slices, raw vegetables, chopped chives, and other herbs are all forms of garnishes.
  • GLAZE: To cook with a thin sugar syrup cooked to crack stage; mixture may be thickened slightly. Also, to cover with thin, glossy icing.
  • GRATE: To rub on a grater that separates the food in various sizes of bits or shreds.
  • GRATIN: From the French word for “crust.” A term used to describe any oven-baked dish–usually cooked in a shallow oval gratin dish–on which a golden-brown crust of bread crumbs, cheese or creamy sauce is formed.
  • GRILL: To cook on a grill over intense heat.
  • GRIND: To process solids by hand or mechanically to reduce them to tiny particles.
  • JULIENNE: To cut vegetables, fruits, or cheeses into thin strips.
  • KNEAD: To work and press the dough with the palms of the hands or mechanically, to develop the gluten in the flour.
  • LUKEWARM: Neither cool nor warm; approximately body temperature.
  • MARINATE: To flavour and moisturize pieces of meat, poultry, seafood or vegetable by soaking them in or brushing them with a liquid mixture of seasonings known as a marinade. Dry marinade mixtures composed of salt, pepper, herbs or spices may also be rubbed into meat, poultry or seafood.
  • MEUNIER: Dredged with flour and sauteed in butter.
  • MINCE: To cut or chop food into extremely small pieces.
  • MIX: To combine ingredients usually by stirring.
  • PAN-BROIL: To cook uncovered in a hot frypan, pouring off fat as it accumulates.
  • PAN-FRY: To cook in small amounts of fat.
  • PARBOIL: To boil until partially cooked; to blanch. Usually, this procedure is followed by final cooking in a seasoned sauce.
  • PARE: To remove the outermost skin of a fruit or vegetable.
  • PEEL: To remove the peels from vegetables or fruits.
  • PICKLE: To preserve meats, vegetables, and fruits in brine.
  • PINCH: A pinch is a trifling amount you can hold between your thumb and forefinger.
  • PIT: To remove pits from fruits.
  • PLANKED: Cooked on a thick hardwood plank.
  • PLUMP: To soak dried fruits in the liquid until they swell.
  • POACH: To cook very gently in hot liquid kept just below the boiling point.
  • PUREE: To mash foods until perfectly smooth by hand, by rubbing through a sieve or food mill, or by whirling in a blender or food processor.
  • REDUCE: To boil down to reduce the volume.
  • REFRESH: To run cold water over food that has been parboiled, to stop the cooking process quickly.
  • RENDER: To make solid fat into liquid by melting it slowly.
  • ROAST: To cook by dry heat in an oven.
  • SAUTE: To cook and/or brown food in a small amount of hot fat.
  • SCALD: To bring to a temperature just below the boiling point.
  • SCALLOP: To bake a food, usually in a casserole, with sauce or other liquid. Crumbs often are sprinkled over.
  • SCORE: To cut narrow grooves or gashes partway through the outer surface of the food.
  • SEAR: To brown very quickly by intense heat. This method increases shrinkage but develops flavour and improves appearance.
  • SHRED: To cut or tear in small, long, narrow pieces.
  • SIFT: To put one or more dry ingredients through a sieve or sifter.
  • SIMMER: To cook slowly in liquid over low heat at a temperature of about 180°. The surface of the liquid should be barely moving, broken from time to time by slowly rising bubbles.
  • SKIM: To remove impurities, whether scum or fat, from the surface of a liquid during cooking, thereby resulting in a clear, cleaner-tasting final produce.
  • STEAM: To cook in steam in a pressure cooker, deep well cooker, double boiler, or a steamer made by fitting a rack in a kettle with a tight cover. A small amount of boiling water is used, more water being added during the steaming process, if necessary.
  • STEEP: To extract colour, flavour, or other qualities from a substance by leaving it in water just below the boiling point.
  • STERILIZE: To destroy microorganisms by boiling, dry heat, or steam.
  • STEW: To simmer in a small amount of liquid for a long time.
  • STIR: To mix ingredients with a circular motion until well blended or of uniform consistency.
  • TOSS: To combine ingredients with a lifting motion.
  • TRUSS: To secure poultry with string or skewers, to hold its shape while cooking.
  • WHIP: To beat rapidly to incorporate air and produce expansion, as in heavy cream or egg whites. 

Evaluation: Study the terms above and their meanings.




Poetic Language

Study the use of Language in the poem below

The Owl and the Pussy-Cat

The Owl and the Pussy-Cat went to sea

In a beautiful pea-green boat:

They took some honey,

and plenty of money

Wrapped up in a five-pound note.

The Owl looked up to the stars above,

And sang to a small guitar,

“O lovely Pussy, O Pussy, my love,

What a beautiful Pussy you are,

You are,

You are!

What a beautiful Pussy you are!”


Contemporary Illustrator: Donna L. Derstine

Pussy said to the Owl, “You elegant fowl,

How charmingly sweet you sing!

Oh! let us be married;

too long we have tarried:

But what shall we do for a ring?”

They sailed away, for a year and a day,

To the land where the bong-tree grows;

And there is a wood, a Piggy-wig stood,

With a ring at the end of his nose,

His nose,

His nose,

With a ring at the end of his nose.

“Dear Pig, are you willing to sell for one shilling

Your ring? “Said the Piggy, “I will.”

So they took it away and were married the next day

By the Turkey who lives on the hill.

They dined on mince and slices of quince,

Which they ate with a runcible spoon;

And hand in hand on the edge of the sand

They danced by the light of the moon,

The moon,

The moon,

They danced by the light of the moon.

The Owl and the Pussycat – 1871 – by Edward Lear


EVALUATION: Highlight words that provoke mental pictures


Change the following active sentences into passive voice.

  1. I did not beat her.
  2. I will never forget this experience.
  3. Mother made a cake yesterday.
  4. The boy teased the girl.
  5. Did she do her duty?
  6. The tiger was chasing the deer.
  7. She has written a novel.
  8. She has learned her lessons.
  9. Have you finished the report?
  10. The police have caught the thief.
  11. My brother has completed the work.
  12. Somebody stole my pen yesterday.
  13. Our team may win the match.
  14. Nurses look after patients.

Compose a poem of your own


  1. Make passive sentences using the words given.


  • (TV / invent / Baird) TV was invented by Braid
  • (Pyramids / build / Egyptians)
  • (coffee / grow / in Brazil)
  • (chopsticks / use / in China)
  • (plants / water / every day)
  • (the thief / arrest / policeman / yesterday)
  • (the injured man / take to a hospital / now)
  • (my car / repair / tomorrow)
  • (your letter / send / last week)

English Workbook Unit 14, No 2 page 35


In our next class, we will be talking about Speech Work: Two, Three &  Four Syllables,  Grammar: The Use of Active and Passive Voice with example.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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