Speech work: Pure Vowel sounds (Monothongs) with examples, Comprehension: Unit 2, page 31

 

Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about pure vowel sounds (monothongs), etc. Enjoy the class!

Comprehension/ Vocabulary Development

Content: Effective English. Unit 2, page 31.

Tolu’s  New School

Vocabulary: To learn about some jobs.

  • A butcher cuts up meat and sells it.
  • A carpenter makes things out of wood.
  • A cashier receives money and pays it out
  • An electrician puts wires for electricity into houses and mends electrical appliances.
  • A labourer does hard work e.g carrying heavy things or digging.
  • A tailor makes clothes
  • A hawker is a person who moves about selling things.

Evaluation

Do practice 2, 3 and 4. Page 32

 Content

Pure vowels

q

Reading Assignment

Vowel sound (pure vowels or monophthongs)

Reference

Oral English for colleges and schools pages 8 to 19

 

Pronouns

pronoun-order

 Without pronouns, we’d have to keep on repeating nouns, and that would make our speech and writing repetitive, not to mention cumbersome. Most pronouns are very short words.

Examples include:

  1. He
  2. She
  3. They
  4. It
  5. We
  6. Who

As mentioned, pronouns are usually used to replace nouns, however, they can also stand-in for certain adverbs, adjectives, and other pronouns. Anytime you want to talk about a person, animal, place or thing, you can use pronouns to make your speech or writing flow better.

Types of pronouns

Pronouns can be divided into numerous categories including:

  1. Indefinite pronouns: those referring to one or more unspecified objects, beings, or places
  2. Personal pronouns: those associated with a certain person, thing, or group; all except you have distinct forms that indicate singular or plural number i.e. I, we, us
  3. Reflexive pronouns: those preceded by the adverb, adjective, pronoun, or noun to which they refer, and ending in–self or–selves i.e. yourself, myself, ourselves.
  4. Demonstrative pronouns: those used to point to something specific within a sentence
  5. Possessive pronouns: those designating possession or ownership
  6. Relative pronouns: those which refer to nouns mentioned previously, acting to introduce an adjective (relative) clause I.e. whose, whom, which, who.
  7. Interrogative pronouns: those which introduce a question I.e. what,
  8. Reciprocal pronouns: those expressing mutual actions or relationship; i.e. one another, each other

Pronoun rules

There are a few important rules for using pronouns. As you read through these rules and the examples in the next section, notice how the pronoun rules are followed. Soon you’ll see that pronouns are easy to work with.

  1. Subject pronouns may be used to begin sentences. For example, We did a great job.
  2. Subject pronouns may also be used to rename the subject. For example, It was she who decided we should go to Hawaii.
  3. Indefinite pronouns don’t have antecedents. They are capable of standing on their own. For example, No one likes the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard.
  4. Object pronouns are used as direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions. These include you, me, him, her, us, them, and it. For example, David talked to her about the mistake.
  5. Possessive pronouns show ownership. They do not need apostrophes. For example, The cat washed its whiskers.

Evaluation: The following exercises will help you gain a greater understanding of how pronouns work. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.

  1. This is __________ speaking .A. John B. He C. He John D. Am
  2. Greg is as smart as __________ is. A. I B.me C. she D. we
  3. The dog chewed on __________ favorite toy. A. it’s B. it is C. its’ D. its
  4. It could have been __________ .A. Jerry B. anyone C. better D. more difficult
  5. Terry is taller than __________ am. A. I B.me C. she D. we

 

Elements of Composition: Introduction, Body and Conclusion

Structure of an essay

The creation of an essay requires a lot of knowledge from the writer, but the first thing to know and to remember is the peculiarity of the essay’s structure. Every essay is written according to a basic structure that does not change: introduction and the body followed by a conclusion. The structure is the core of each paper that helps the writer to make a very well-founded written construct. To compose an essay accurately, the way it should be, it is necessary to keep in mind the main hints concerning the contents of the essay structure elements.

Basic essay structure
  1. Introduction:

An introduction does not need to be lengthy (and should not be), but it is an important part of an essay. A weak introduction can cause readers to lose interest in your essay from the start, whereas a strong introduction will engage your readers and make them want to continue reading. Of course, the introduction is the first part of your essay that your audience will read, and it’s important to make a good first impression.

An introduction needs to do three things:

  1. To spark the interest of readers
  2. To move readers gracefully toward the thesis statement.
  3. To present the thesis statement of the essay.
How to write a good introduction with samples
  • Begin with a background or historical information:

Example: Theft is not a new crime.

Throughout history, unscrupulous individuals have pretended to be people they are not, often with the goal of political, social, or financial gain. With the right appearance and demeanour, people have falsely presented themselves as kings and bishops. Today, in our information age, identity theft is a far more prevalent problem. With access to names, Social Security numbers, and other personal information, thieves are able to steal identities, leaving the victims struggling to clear their good names. Identity theft is a serious problem that claims millions of innocent victims, and the government must implement better regulations to help put an end to this crime.

  • Begin with a quotation:

Example: Theft is not a new crime.

In Shakespeare’s Othello, Iago claims that he “who steals my purse steals trash / . . . But he that filches from me my good name / Robs me of that which not enriches him, / and makes me poor indeed” (3.3.157-161). Today, identity theft is a new way that thieves steal both the “purses” and the good names of innocent victims, and these thieves are enriching themselves at the expense of their victims. Identity theft is a serious problem that claims millions of innocent victims, and the government must implement better regulations to help put an end to this crime.

  • Begin with an interesting or surprising fact:

Example: Theft is not a new crime.

Fraud is the fastest growing crime in the United States. In 2004, over nine million Americans, or approximately one person in 24, became victims of identity fraud or identity theft, at a cost to the economy of 52.6 billion dollars (“2005 Identity Fraud Survey Report”). Because many cases of identity fraud and identity theft may go unreported, the numbers could be even higher. Identity theft is a serious problem that claims millions of innocent victims, and the government must implement better regulations to help put an end to this crime.

  • Begin with a definition of an important term:

Example: Theft is not a new crime.

Our identity is what makes us unique. It is “the distinguishing character or personality of an individual,” and when one is a victim of identity theft, it is this “distinguishing character” that is stolen: one’s name, address, Social Security number, employment history, credit history, and more. It, therefore, is no wonder that victims of identity theft often feel a deep sense of violation as they struggle to reclaim their good names. Identity theft is a serious problem that claims millions of innocent victims, and the government must implement better regulations to help put an end to this crime.

  • Begin with a short narrative:

Example: Theft is not a new crime.

Joe Stevens was finally ready to purchase a home. He spent years putting money into a savings account, paid off his credit cards, and diligently paid every bill on time. Confident of his good credit rating, Joe visited the bank to inquire about a mortgage, but he discovered startling information: Joe defaulted on a home loan, had $40,000 in credit card debt, and had a car repossessed for lack of payment. Joe Stevens, like many Americans, is a victim of identity theft. Instead of preparing to move into a new home, Joe began the long journey to restore his good name and to reclaim his identity. Identity theft is a serious problem that claims millions of innocent victims, and the government must implement better regulations to help put an end to this crime

  • Begin with a question:

Example: Theft is not a new crime.

How would you feel if you knew, at this moment, that some criminal is writing your name, address, and Social Security number on credit card applications and plans to charge thousands of dollars worth of merchandise on those credit cards? More importantly, how do you know that this is not happening? Millions of people have become victims of identity theft, and they often find out only after thousands of dollars have been stolen using their names. Identity theft is a serious problem that claims millions of innocent victims, and the government must implement better regulations to help put an end to this crime. Introduction

  1. Body of the essay:

The body is the meat and potatoes of your essay. As such, it needs to contain lots of juicy textual evidence and meaty support, not fluff. The body of a basic essay may have as many body paragraphs as it is necessary to prove the author’s argument of the thesis statement. It is vital to keep in mind that each paragraph is supposed to have one main argument to analyze and has to reveal it in one solid thought in a sentence called the topic sentence. Therefore the amount of the body paragraphs equals the number of topic sentences. Each body paragraph must be connected to the following one with a logical link.

  • First paragraph:

The first paragraph of the body should contain the strongest argument, the most significant example, cleverest illustration, or an obvious beginning point. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the “reverse hook” which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body.

  • Second paragraph:

The second paragraph of the body should contain the second strongest argument, the second most significant example, second cleverest illustration, or an obvious follow up the first paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body.

  • Third paragraph:

The third paragraph of the body should contain the weakest argument, weakest example, weakest illustration, or an obvious follow up to the second paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this paper. This hook also leads to the last or concluding paragraph.

  1. Conclusion:

It is usually written in one solid paragraph. The conclusion always deals with summing up the essay’s arguments revealed in the topic sentences and the therefore present substantial evidence to prove the thesis statement. It is also important to mention the importance of the general conclusion of the essay.

General Evaluation

  1. Mention and explain the types of pronouns you know.
  2. Explain briefly the structure or elements of a good composition

Weekend Assignment

Pick out the pronouns in the following

  1. We are going on vacation.
  2. Don’t tell me that you can’t go with us.
  3. Anybody who says it won’t be fun has no clue what they are talking about.
  4. These are terribly steep stairs.
  5. We ran into each other at the mall.
  6. I’m not sure which is worse: rain or snow.
  7. It is one of the nicest Italian restaurants in town.
  8. Richard stared at himself in the mirror.
  9. The laundry isn’t going to do itself.
  10. Someone spilled orange juice all over the countertop!

Write a fantastic composition on any of the following topics, with insights from the topic, “elements of composition.”

  1. My Best Friend.
  2. A Visit to the Hospital.
  3. My Last Birthday Party

 

In our next class, we will be talking about Comprehension: A Conversation, Page 43, Grammar/Structure: Verbs: Definition, Identification with examples.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

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