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In today’s class, we will be talking about grammar: adjectives, etc. Enjoy the class!
Narrative Essay: My First Day in Secondary School
Content: Sample Essay
Tell us about a personal quality, talent, accomplishment, contribution or experience that is important to you. What about this quality or accomplishment makes you proud, and how does it relate to the person you are?
My First Day in Secondary School
The clock struck 6:30, I was in bed, and it was time to get up. Being that my mom was the one who woke me up, I waited in bed and closed my eyes as she came near my room to cover my anxiety. It was the first day of high school and I was as excited as one could be. Taking my shower towel in with me to brush my teeth and my toothbrush downstairs with me to eat breakfast, I was oblivious to everything except for the special day that I envisioned at school.
Once I was ready, my mom drove me to school, asked me several questions, told me what to do after school, and yet I came out of the car unaware of what she had said. Walking onto campus while embracing my surroundings, I kept telling myself, “This is my time, now let’s go make it happen.” After the first two classes, the day was going great; I had seen many of my friends and my teachers were presumably pleasant. We then had a ten-minute break in which I decided to use the restroom.
As I walked in, I looked into the mirror and saw the face of one of my closest friends. After a few more steps, I saw the full picture. He was in a small huddle with a few other students, and in his right hand was a cigarette. I was stunned, and now knowing how to react, I quickly exited the restroom. The scene haunted me for a long time and after several weeks, it became clear that we were no longer in touch with each other.
Growing up in a family with high, positive morals, I had seemingly been blinded by reality. Seeing a kid my age, not to mention my good friend, doing drugs was beyond my belief. Although it was tough for me to get over at first, it later became mind-boggling to me as to why this even affected me as much as it did. My ‘friend’ had been sucked into a poor decision that I knew I was bigger than. My parents had taught me to live above the influence and that any mistakes I make now will be evident in the future. I understand that there will always be distracters in my future but I know that they are all just trying to take me off the success that I know I am on.
Evaluation: Write your own experience, in a narrative way, title: “My First Day in Secondary School”.
Adjectives: definition, identification and types
Content: What Is an Adjective?
Adjectives are words that modify (change) nouns, pronouns and other adjectives.
How to Identify Adjectives
In the sentence “he was fast,” the word “fast” is an adjective that describes the pronoun “he.”
Here’s a special sentence that uses all the letters of the English language: “The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.”
In this sentence, the words “quick,” “brown” and “lazy” are adjectives (and so is the word “the,” but we’ll explain this later!). All these words are describing or somehow modifying a noun.
So, you might already know about adjectives like these, like “quick,” “beautiful” and “ugly,” which are used to describe people, places and things. But did you know that adjectives have many other uses? Words like “every,” “the” and “my” are also adjectives. When you say “my cat,” the word “my” is modifying the word “cat.” It’s describing that cat as your possession, or something that belongs to you. Likewise for the word “every” in the phrase “every cat.”As you can see, adjectives have many uses!
Types of Adjectives
Remember that adjectives can modify as well as describe other words, and you’ll find it much easier to identify different types of adjectives when you see them.
- Articles: There are only three articles, and all of them are adjectives: a, an, and the. Because they are used to discuss non-specific things and people. “a” and “an” are called indefinite articles. For example
- I’d like a…
- Let’s go on an…
- Possessive Adjectives: As the name indicates, possessive adjectives are used to indicate possession. They are My, Your, His, Her, Its, Our, Their. Possessive adjectives also function as possessive pronouns.
- Demonstrative Adjectives: Like the article ‘the’, demonstrative adjectives are used to indicate or demonstrate specific people, animals, or things. Examples: These, those, this and that are demonstrative adjectives.
- These books belong to her
- This movie is my favourite.
- Please put those cookies on the blue plate.
- Coordinate Adjectives: Coordinate adjectives are separated with commas or the word ‘and’, and appear one after another to modify the same noun. The adjectives in the phrase: bright, sunny day and long and dark night are coordinate adjectives. In phrases with more than two coordinate adjectives, the word ‘and’ always appears before the last one; for example, The sign had big, bold, and bright letters.
Be careful, because some adjectives that appear in a series are not coordinate. In the phrase green delivery truck, the words green and delivery are not separated by a comma because green modifies the phrase delivery truck. To eliminate confusion when determining whether a pair or group of adjectives is coordinate, just insert the word ‘and’ between them. If ‘and’ works, then the adjectives are coordinate and need to be separated with a comma.
- Numbers Adjectives: When they’re used in sentences, numbers are almost always adjectives. You can tell that a number is an adjective when it answers the question “How many?”
- The stagecoach was pulled by a team of six.
- He ate twenty hot dogs during the contest and was sick afterwards.
- Interrogative Adjectives: There are three interrogative adjectives: which, what, and whose. Like all other types of adjectives, interrogative adjectives modify nouns. As you probably know, all three of these words are used to ask questions.
- Which option sounds best to you?
- What time should we go?
- Whose socks are those?
- Indefinite Adjectives: Like the articles a, and an, indefinite adjectives are used to discuss non-specific things. You might recognize them since they’re formed from indefinite pronouns. The most common indefinite adjectives are any, many, no, several, and few.
- Do we have any peanut butter?
- Grandfather has been retired for many years now
- There are no bananas in the fruit bowl.
- I usually read the first few pages of a book before I buy it.
- We looked at several cars before deciding on the best one for our family.
The Nature and Kinds of Oral Literature
Epics, ballads, prose tales, ritual and lyric songs, as genres, existed orally before writing was invented. We do not have a special word to designate them before they were manifested in writing, so we are left with the paradox of “oral literature.” But if literature can be defined as “carefully constructed verbal expression,” carefully structured oral verbal expression can surely qualify as literature. This is common sense. People did not wait until there was writing before they told stories and sang songs.
Moreover, when these genres first appeared in writing, their metric base, their poetic and compositional devices, were already fully developed and none of them could have been invented by any one person at any one time. They are too complicated for that.
Oral literature, then, consists of the songs and stories, and other sayings that people have heard and listened to, sung and told, without any intervention of writing. The creator or transmitter did not write the song or the story but sang or told it; the receiver did not read the song or story but heard it. These stories and songs are, therefore, not only oral but also aural; they are not only told, but they are also heard.
Speech work: Vowel /I/
Make five minimal pairs of the sound /I/.
- What do you understand by the term “oral literature”?
- Write five examples of five different types of adjectives.
- Write a narrative on an experience you will never forget.
Find the adjective or adjectives that fit in each of the blanks best.
- We visited the museum, where we saw ____________ artifacts. A. A lot of B. Ancient C. John’s D. A room filled with
- I received ______________ awards at the ceremony today. A. The manager’s B. Two C. Information about D. Motivation at the
- Please get me a bag of ____________ apples. A. Interesting B. Ripe red C. Oranges and D. Real
- The president sat in a _______________ chair. A. Important B. Barber’s C. Funny D. Leather
- ________________ weather is the norm in San Francisco. A. Blue B. Big C. Foggy D. The best
Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the adjective given in the brackets.
- He is ………………… than his neighbours. (Rich)
- The brides were much……………… than the grooms. (Young)
- He is too …………………… to be taught. (Intelligent)
- He is ………………… than I thought him to be. (Clever)
- When the old woman became……………………, she began to move about. (Strong)
- He is much ………………… now. (Good)
- The offer was too ………………… to be true. (Good)
- He fishes with …………………… success than I do. (Great)
- Shakespeare is the…………………… playwright in English. (Great)
- The pain was …………………… than he could bear. (Much)
- The ………………… thing of all was that his son was rude to him. (Bad)
- Jane was the ………………… player of the two. (Good)
In our next class, we will be talking about Comprehension: Unit 7(a) page 91 Oduduwa, Grammar: Comparison of Adjectives. We hope you enjoyed the class.
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