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In today’s Business Studies class, We will be discussing Memorandum. We hope you enjoy the class!


memo business studies classnotesng


A memorandum or memo is internal communication within an organization. Such written communication between the personnel and accounts departments or between the marketing and accounts departments are examples of a memo. A memorandum is also shortened as a memo. Because a memo is between staff in the same organization, it does not have:

  1. Address
  2. Salutation such as Dear Sir, Dear Madam, etc
  3. No complimentary close e.g. yours faithfully, Yours truly, etc.


The following is an example of a memo:-


FROM: Director                               To: All Teachers

Ref: BO/OA                                     Date: 24 Aug. 2009


This is to inform you that there will be an in-service training today after the school hours in the boys Oyeyemi dining hall



Oyeyemi B. (Ph.D)




A personal letter, also known as a private letter, is a written communication from someone to a friend, parent, uncle etc. But when it is from someone to a firm it is regarded as an official letter because the address, language, the salutation and complimentary close of such a letter will be official or formal.

A personal letter has the following parts:

(i) Writer’s address, written on the right-hand corner

(ii) date; written below the writer’s address;

(iii)Salutation, given on the left margin

(iv) body of the letter;

  • Complimentary close

(vi) name of the writer

sample personal letter business studies classnotesng



When a business letter is to be sent to the addressee, it is usual to enclose it in an envelope.

In order to type an address on an envelope proceed as follows:

  1. Select an envelope large enough to contain the letter and the enclosure, if any.
  2. Type the name and address parallel to the long side of the envelope
  3. The address should be started slightly above the middle of the envelope, horizontally and vertically,
  4. Type the envelope in single or double line spacing Single spacing for small envelopes and double for large envelopes. Either the blocked or indented style can be used.


envelope addressing business studies classnotesng



Acknowledgement of letters, orders, etc is sometimes sent to customers on postcards. Postcards are never enclosed in envelopes as they contain nothing of secret or personal nature. One side of the postcard contains the name and address of the firm sending it, the reference, date and the message. A postcard, like a memo, does not contain salutation and complimentary close. Both sides of the postcard can be used as follows:-

  1. Leave 1 inch (i.e. 25mm) top margin and type in single line spacing between paragraphs
  2. Use ½ inch (13 mm) left and right margin.
  3. On the other side of the postcard, the addressee’s and addresser’s are typed in exactly the same way as addressed and typed on ordinary envelopes.


  1. What is a memo?
  2. Explain the term personal letter


Reading JSS 3 Business Studies by O.A. Lawal pages 148 to 150


  1. What is trade by barter?
  2. Mention two problems of trade by barter.
  3. Define trade
  4. Give the main division of trade.
  5. List six parts of typewriter.


  1. The written internal communication within an organization is called A. postcard     B. sentences      C.  letter  D. memo
  2. One of the following should not have both solution and complimentary close A. letters B.  private letter           C. postcard D.  registered letter
  3. Which of the following is not meant for confidential information? A. Business letters       B. private letters    C. postcards D.  memos
  4. Yours faithfully is an appropriate complimentary close for _____ A. Memos B.  postcards   friendly  Letters  D.  officials letters
  5. Which type of communication contains the address of the addressee and that of the addressed? A. Envelope B.  memo   C.   business letter.


  1. Explain in full the postcard
  2. Write a letter to your class teacher Business Studies Teacher asking him/her to advise you on career opportunities in business Education.



We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be talking about Business Letter-Heading. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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