# Basic Electricity

BASIC ELECTRICITY

INTRODUCTION

At the end of this topic, pupils must be able to identify and define electricity, the flow of current. Conductors and non-conductors.

WHAT IS ELECTRICITY?

Electricity is simply the flow of electrons from one place to another or from one surface to another.

THE FLOW OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

Electrons can flow through any material, but does so more easily in some than in others. The following are mediums in which electric current is grouped.

1. Conductors: These are Materials which allow electric current to pass through them. Examples are all metals because they are good conductors of electricity.
2. Semiconductors: Electrons can be made to flow under certain circumstances. Variable resistance according to formulation and circuit conditions.
3. Insulator: This is also known as the non-conductors, are materials which do not allow electric current to pass through them are called insulators. Most of the non-metals are insulators, e.g. asbestos, rubber, wood, etc.

SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY

We can produce electricity by converting different energies available in nature. So, we should look into various natural sources of energy which we use to produce electricity. Some common sources of energy are:

1. The Sun
2. The Wind
4. The Fuel
5. The Nuclear Energy

COMPONENTS OF A CIRCUIT:

A circuit consists of three basic things to function:

• A source of voltage
• A conductive path which helps the movement of charges
• A resistor (say, a light bulb) which requires electricity to do work

Apart from the basic requirements, a circuit consists of a number of components which provide different functions.:

IMPORTANCE OF A CIRCUIT

• A battery:It is a combination of cells and its utility is the same as the cell.
• Switch:It is a plug key used to allow or stop the flow of current upon being pressed. It may be an open or a closed switch.
• Wire joint:One device may be connected to the other using wires. This is shown by drawing ‘blobs’ at their point of connectivity.
• Wires crossing without joining:The wires that do not touch each other are drawn without blobs.
• Electric bulb:The electrical device which uses electricity to glow.
• Resistor (R):It is used to restrict the amount of current flow in the circuit.
• Ammeter:It is used to measure the current passing at a particular point.
• Voltmeter:It is used to measure the voltage between two points in a circuit.

USES OF ELECTRICITY:

Electricity can be used for a number of reasons. Some are listed below.

1. Healthcare: We can see the uses of electricity for operating modern technologies every day. These surgical operations won’t even start without electricity. For example, the doctors need a powerful light during an operation on a patient and without electricity, the light won’t function and operation can prove fatal.
2. Engineering: Constructions of buildings and structures for the convenience of people requires electricity in every step. Building houses, installing gates and windows, welding of materials requires current electricity to operate the machines.
3. Transport and Communication: Reaching places or communicating from a different corner of the world is only possible because of electricity. A power cut during airline travel can be dangerous.
4. Household: Starting from toaster to refrigerator, microwave, washing machine, dishwasher, electrical chimney and many more appliances which are simple to use and made for the convenience of day to day activities uses electricity to function.

EVALUATION

• List 2 types of machine that uses electricity
• Mention 2 types hospital equipment that uses electricity

ASSIGNMENT

• List 5 engineering equipment
• List 2 other use of electricity
• List 5 uses of thermal energy.

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