Food Nutrients


Welcome to Class !!

We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s Home Economics class, We will be discussing Food Nutrients. We hope you enjoy the class!





  • Definition of Food
  • Food Groups
  • Balanced Diets

food nutrients home econs classnotesng


Food is any edible substance liquid or solid which when eaten and digested provides the body with nourishment, energy, enhances growth and regulates the body processes. It maintains life.



These are the chemical substances in the food we eat. Different foods contain different types of food nutrients.

These are carbohydrates, fats and oil, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water.



It refers to the way the body uses the food we eat. It is the scientific study of the food we eat and how it nourishes the body.



  1. Define the word ‘food’.
  2. List all the nutrients present in foods.





a)  It provides the body with energy for work.

b)  Surplus is stored as body fat.

Yam, cassava, rice, maize, bread, sugar, potatoes, etc. a)  Lack of energy

b)  Tiredness

Fats and oils a)  It provides the body with heat and energy.


b)  Surplus is stored as body fat.

Margarine, butter, palm oil, groundnut oil, oily meat and fish Skin may become rough
Proteins a)  For growth e.g. in children, adolescents and babies.

b)  For building new tissues

c)  For repair of worn out or damaged tissue

Meat, fish, eggs, milk, soya bean, peas, beans, etc. a)  Poor growth and development.

b)  General weakness.

c)  Kwashiorkor in children.

Minerals e.g. calcium, iron, iodine, phosphorus, etc. a)  For growth e.g. the bones and teeth.

b)  For proper working or functioning of the body.

Milk, eggs, green vegetables, meat, liver, beans, seafood, etc. Poor functioning of the body e.g. weak bones and teeth, tiredness, headache, etc.
Vitamins e.g. Vit-A, Vit B-complex, Vit. D, etc. a) They protect the body from diseases.

b) Help the body use food for energy, growth and repair.

c)  Important for vitality.

Fruits, vegetables, egg, yolk, milk, meat, butter, fish, kidney, beans, cod-liver oil etc. a)  Body will be easily affected by diseases.

b)  Weakness and loss of appetite.

Water a)  It helps digestion.

b)  Important for body tissue and fluids such as saliva, urine, sweat, etc.

c)  It also helps to eliminate waste from the body.

Fruits, drinkable water, beverages, fruits and vegetables. a)  Normal digestion will be affected.

b)  Body will be dehydrated.

typesof food nutrients home econs classnotesng



  1. Define nutrition.
  2. State three importance of water in the body.



Foods can be grouped according to the nutrients they contain and the functions they perform in the body. They are generally grouped into three which are:

  1. Body Building Foods – These are proteins and they include meat, fish, eggs, milk, beans, etc.
  2. Energy Giving Foods – These are carbohydrates and fats. Proteins can supply energy but not as much as carbohydrates and fats.  Examples of energy food are starchy foods such as yam, potatoes, cassava, bread, rice, palm oil, etc.
  3. Protective Foods –These protect the body from diseases. They are vitamins and mineral sources include vegetable and fruits.
  4. Roughage – This is an important food item.  It is an indigestible part of foods such as cellulose.

Roughages have the following uses:

      • It increases the bulk of the food.
      • It helps digestion and bowel movement.
      • It helps to prevent constipation.



  1. List the food groups with the nutrient(s) under each group.
  2. State two functions of roughages in the body.


Healthy-balanced-diet basic science classnotesng


A balanced diet is a meal that contains all six classes of food nutrients in the right proportion.  Different groups of people e.g. children, adolescents, pregnant mothers, invalids, the aged, vegetarian, have different nutritional needs.




  1. State any three uses of food in the body.
  2. List ten foods commonly eaten in your community. Group them according to their nutrients.
  3. What is a balanced diet?
  4. State two important of roughages in the body.
  5. State five good feeding habits/ table manners.



We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be talking about Food Hygiene and Food Preparations. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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