Speech Work: Consonant Clusters tr and str


Welcome to Class !!

We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s English Language class, We will be discussing Consonants Clusters tr and str. We will also be looking into Punctuation Mark and Words to do with Law. We hope you enjoy the class!



  1. Speech Work: Consonant Clusters tr and str P.124
  2. Grammar: Punctuation Mark: Full stop, Comma, Exclamation mark, Question mark, Colons and Semi-Colons
  3. Vocabulary Development: Words to do with Law and Orders P.126
  4. Writing: Formal Letters (To the Principal) 



A. Speech Work: Consonant Clusters tr and str 

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Content: tr and str cluster

There is a consonant cluster in these words:

Train              strain              trap                strap

Tray               stray               treat               street

Trip                strip               truck               struck

EVALUATION: Write and pronounce three words each that have either the cluster tr or str.                               

READING ASSIGNMENT: Effective English JSS 2 p 124.


B. Grammar: Punctuation Marks

Content: Usages

Punctuation marks are used to mark a pause or a stop in a sentence.

  • Question marks (?): are used at the end of a direct question:
      1. What is your favourite game?
      2. Where is that brother of mine hiding?
  • Comma (,): is used to separate the items in lists of words, phrases and clauses.
      1. e.g I have invited Bimpe, Ahmed, Audu and Aisha.
      2. Don’t worry, you still have time to dress before the show.
  • Full stop (.):  is used at the end of a sentence: He looked out of the window. My baby brother goes to nursery school. The full stop is also known as the period. It is used:
      • For marking the end of a gentle command e.g.
      • Eat your food quickly.
      • Do not waste our time
      • For making the end of a statement (i.e. a sentence that merely supplies some piece of information):
          1. He is a nuisance
          2. She is wonderful.
      • For indicating abbreviations (i.e. shortened forms of words or phrases) e.g. O.A.U – Organisation of African Unity
          1. Mr. – Mister,                                                  U.N – United Nations.
          2. Dr. – Doctor                                                 N.U.T – Nigeria Union of Teachers.

Note: However, the full stop is sometimes omitted in abbreviations. It is therefore also possible to write some of the above examples without any full stop e.g. OAU, Mr, ECOWAS.


  • Apostrophe (‘):  is used with ‘s’ to show possession: Akosua’s shoes, Nurses’ uniforms.
  • Colon (:) is used to show that something more is to follow such as before explanations before a list and to introduce quotations
      1. I have to call the plumber: the pipe is leaking.
      2. The colours of the rainbow are as follow violet, indigo, blue, green.
  • Semicolon (;): is used where the meaning of two independent sentences is closely connected.

e.g It’s a good idea; let’s hope it will work

  • Inverted comma (‘ ’) or Quotation marks are used to highlight a slang technical term or a word which the writer wants to draw attention; indirect speech to show the actual words of the speaker; used to highlight names of books. Etc.
      1. I read ‘Snow White’ when I was seven.
      2. The peasant said, ‘I have an idea’.
      3. Scrub the ‘floor’ with a clean brush.


EVALUATION: Punctuate this sentence correctly:

I think it is impossible said the cat that you have the power to change yourself into a rat or a mouse impossible cried the ogre you shall see that at once.

READING ASSIGNMENT: Exam Focus. English Language for JSS P. 145-147.



C. Vocabulary Development

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Content: Words to do with Law and Order 

  1. Arrest: Police arrest someone when they strongly suspect him of a crime.
  2. Behind bars: i.e. in Prison. When a person is released from prison, he is set free, i.e. given his freedom.
  3. Charge: When a crime has been committed, the suspect is charged with that crime (he may be charge with murder or with theft)

EVALUATION: Exam Focus: English Language P.120 Revision Exercise (1-5)

Effective English JSS 2 pg 126 – 17 Prac. 3



D. Writing

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Content: Letter to One’s Principal

What are formal letters? These are business or official letters. They are sent to holders of posts and not to particular persons. These types of letters include letters of applicants, letters in answer to an advertisement, commercial correspondence, letters of references and testimonials. The person who receives such a letter is interested to know about the matter that caused you to write, not about your personal life or a problem. He is also unimpressed by your praises of him or your concern for his health and that of his family, so, in the introduction of such a letter, avoid unwarranted or distracting preambles.

Features of Formal Letters:

  1. Address: This kind of letter requires two addresses – the writer’s address and the address of the reader or recipient. The writer’s address should be at the top right-hand corner of the writing materials as in the informal letter. The address of the recipient should come below the date but as the left-hand corner.

This is illustrated below:

                                                                 3, Olayinka Street,

                                                                 Omoroga, Meiran,

                                                     Lagos State.

                                                               14th January 2016.

The Manager,

The Punch Newspaper,

314, Albert Ogunde Road,




Dear Sir,



Body of the letter _____________________________________



Yours faithfully,


Adeyemo Ademola

  1. Salutation: After the second address, you write ‘Dear Sir’ or ‘Dear Madam’ or ‘Sir’ or Madam’ immediately below. Under this, you give the title of the letter and this should be underlined. You must capitalize all words in the title or capitalize only the first letter of the keywords in the title
  2. Body
  3. Complimentary close (conclusion):

Yours faithfully,


Ojo Makinde



  1. The ‘Y’ of ‘Yours’ must be a capital letter while the ‘F’ of faithfully must be a small letter.
  2. There must be a comma after faithfully.
  3. The letter should end with the writer’s full names – first name and surname and signature. The signature should be above your name. You may wish to write your official status below your name.
  4. The complimentary close should be at the right-hand corner bottom of the letter.


Don’t use:

  1. Yours obediently
  2. Yours truly
  3. Yours in the lord

Expression: The tone of this type of letter is the exact opposite of the informal. There should be no room for colloquial expressions, slang clichés and idioms e.g.

  1. Let me know what I owe you (informal)
  2. Kindly render your account. (formal)

More examples

Formal                                   Informal

Feasible                                 workable

Recompense                          pay back

Affable                                  friendly

Vivacious                             lively

Comprehend                       understand


Centralized forms are not acceptable.

Use full form: couldn’t, will not etc.

Sentences must be short and more direct.

EVALUATION: Write a letter to the principal of your school requesting for a 3-day permission to visit your sick grandmother in the hospital.

READING ASSIGNMENT: Exam Focus English JSCE pg 8 -10.




  1. With the aid of a dictionary write the meaning of the following:
      • a. solicitor b. defendant c. client    d. evidence   e. verdict    f. witness   g. magistrate.
  2. Punctuate the following:
    • A few weeks after the registration exercise Joe Udo wrote Rose an official letter in his capacity as faculty officer. He summoned her to report to him ostensibly to clarify certain things on her registration forms so as to put the records in good order so that Rose might not suspect his intention directly he also summoned three other students including the boys
  3. Punctuate this sentence: Where is the bag
  4. What is the meaning of this legal term ‘plaintiff’.


Complete each of the following sentences with the best option.

  1. All the following except ___________ can be found in a court of law moderator   B. police officers   C. judges    D. magistrates
  2. Someone complained against in a court of law is the __________. lawyer’s client   B. defendant   C. plaintiff    D. accused
  3. The statement: The accused was acquitted and discharged means that the accused was found guilty but set free   B. found guilty and jailed   C. found innocent and set free   D. found guilty and jailed
  4. The accused has _____________ against the judgment. A. appealed B. spoken written  D. requested
  5. A country’s Armed Forces are made up of its ___________ Army, Navy and Air force    B. Police, Army and Air Force    C. Navy, Army force and Police force     D. judges, Air force and police force



We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be contrasting the vowels /Ӡ:/, /˄/, /e/, /ә/. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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