Speech Work: Consonant Sounds


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In today’s English Language class, We will be discussing Consonant Sounds. We hope you enjoy the class!



  1. Speech Work: Consonant Sounds
  2. Grammar: Demonstratives P.145
  3. Reading/Comprehension: Life of Aminu kano P.147
  4. Vocabulary Development: Science and Technology
  5. Writing: Expository Essay: Entrepreneurship 



A. Speech Work: Consonant Sounds

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Content: Sound /p/ and /f/

To make the sound /p/, the upper and lower lips are together to obstruct the flow of the airstream from the lungs, then the air is pushed out between them. To make the sound /f/, the upper teeth touch the lower lips and the air passes between them, there is a continuous frictional noise as the airstream passes. The sounds /f/ and /p/ are not voiced.

Listen and say:

pig                            fig                   plop               flop

pin                             fin                    please          fleas

pull                            full                   play              phase

pat                            fast                 cap                loaf

EVALUATION: Write five words each that have /f/ and /p/ sounds.



B. Grammar: Demonstratives

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Content: Demonstrative Adjectives

This, that, these and those can be used as demonstrative adjectives or as demonstrative pronouns. When demonstratives are used as adjectives, they point out nouns and are followed by the nouns which they point out. The table beneath shows their use as demonstrative adjectives.


‘Nearer’ (this, these)                                      Farther away (that, these)

Singular                     This mango is a big one.                              That mango is small.

Plural                          These mangoes are enormous.                    Did you like those mangoes?


When demonstratives are used as pronouns, there is no noun after them. They point out specific persons, places, and things referred to.

(Close)                                              (Far)

Singular:                    This                                                      That

Plural:                         These                                                 Those


  1. What is this?
  2. Those are my books.
  3. This is going to be fun.


In a comprehension test, you may be asked to explain the grammatical function of a word or group of words. If you had to explain the grammatical function of those in a sentence, you could do so like: ‘Those‘ is a plural demonstrative pronoun. It refers to some books which the speaker is pointing out, and it acts as the subject of its sentence.

Example 3

I like those pictures but I don’t like these.

In this example, those refer to some pictures which the speaker is pointing at, but it is the object of its clause, not the subject.


Example 4

Aminu Kano received awards from several governments. These included the government of Guinea and Benin.

In the text, These is a plural demonstrative pronoun. It refers to governments mentioned in the previous sentence it is the subject of its sentence.

 EVALUATION: Effective English JSS 2 P. 146 practice 2 (1-2)

READING ASSIGNMENT: Effective English JSS 2 P. 145-146



C. Comprehension

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Content: Life of Aminu Kano

This passage is about the life of Aminu Kano. While reading the two parts of the stories, try to understand what sort of a politician he was and what his aims and interest were.

EVALUATION: Effective English JSS 2 P. 139-140

READING ASSIGNMENT: Effective English JSS 2 P. 139-140



D. Writing

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Content: A Short Life History of an Important Person

Plan your account of the person’s life.

First, work out what each paragraph will be about. Here is a possible plan:

Paragraph 1: Introduction; summary of the person’s main achievements.

Paragraph 2: Early life

Paragraph 3: Main Events in his/her political life

Paragraph 4: Aims and Interests.

Paragraph 5: Death and Conclusion

EVALUATION: In not less than two pages, write a detailed account of a popular political leader that interests you. 

READING ASSIGNMENTS: Effective English JSS 2 P. 146

Literature: Rage Act 2 Scene 3-5




  1. Make 5 sentences each, using this, that, these and those as a demonstrative pronoun.
  2. Make 5 sentences each using this, that, these and those as a demonstrative adjective.



Choose the best option.

  1. Sola writes an account of her daily activities in an/a ____________ directory    B. dictionary   C. dairy    D. atlas
  2. We lifted the lid off the box and examined its ______________ A. materials items   C. inside    D. content
  3. My mother ______________ is a teacher, gives me private lessons at home. which    B. who   C. whom    D. that
  4. The villagers helped ________________ each other     B. themselves    C. one another            D. their selves
  5. Of the two girls, Tobi is the ____________. tall    B. taller     C. more tallest    D. more taller



Correct the following sentences by choosing the right verbs from the brackets to fill in the gaps.

  1. All the equipment he bought ____________ out of order. (is, are)
  2. The nature of all his problem ______________ still unknown (are, is)
  3. Only an observer from one of the European Countries ____________ allowed to cover the election (was, were)
  4. Either John or I ________________ supposed to do the work (is, am)
  5. A knowledge of the rules of grammar _______________ useful (is, are)



We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be contrasting the consonants /s/ and /z/, /ð/ and /Ө/ . We are very much eager to meet you there.


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