Speechwork: Vowel Contrast /әu/ and /au/


Welcome to Class !!

We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s English Language class, We will be contrasting the Vowels /әu/ and /au/. We will also be looking at Tenses and some Vocabulary Development. We hope you enjoy the class!


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  1. Speechwork: Vowel Contrast /әu/ and /au/
  2. Grammar: Tenses
  3. Comprehension: Planting
  4. Vocabulary Development: Armed Forces
  5. Writing: Descriptive Essay


A. Topic: Vowel Contrast

Content:       /әu/    and    /au/

cloak             cloud

boat               bow

crow              crowd

load               loud 

Evaluation: Write out ten pairs for the sounds.

Reading Assignment: Exam Focus English JSCE p143



B. Topic: Tense

Content: Present, Past, Future

Tenses-english classnotesng

Tense occurs only in verbs. It refers to the change that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate time.


Present tense expresses an action taking place now. Except in the case of the verb ‘be’, the only change that takes place in the form of the verb to indicate that the present tense occurs when the verb agrees with a third person singular subject.

Examples:     Sule always reads after meals.

The bus arrives at 8 a.m

The sunsets in the West.

Sugar is sweet.

Speakers Singular Plural
1st person  

I sleep, eat, wake,do,   have


We sleep, eat, wake, do,   have

2nd person  

You sleep, eat, wake, do, have


You sleep, eat, wake, do,   have

3rd person  

She/He/It  sleeps, eats, wakes, does, has


They sleep, eat, wake, do,   have



In the case of the verb ‘be’, one more change takes place in the form of the verb to indicate the present tense.

Singular Plural
1st I am a student. We are students.
2nd You are a student. You are students.
3rd He/She is a student. They are students.

The examples given above are in the simple forms. Other present tense forms include the present continuous, present perfect and present perfect continuous.



Present Continuous: e.g.I am working.

Present Perfect: e.g.I have worked.

Present Perfect Continuous:e.g. I have been working.




The past tense is used to talk about a past action.

Regular verbs form their past tense by adding ‘-ed’ to the simple form of the verb, while irregular verbs form their past tense in different ways.

Examples: Regular

Present Tense                                  Past Tense
Book Booked
Share Shared
Celebrate Celebrated
Mix Mixed
Order Ordered
Switch Switched



Present Tense Past Tense
Bleed Bled
Break Broke
Build Built
Swim Swam
Cast Cast
Hit Hit

There are four past tense forms in English. The past simple, past continuous:

Past Simple:e.g. I worked.

Past Continuous:e.g. I was working.

Past Perfect: e.g.I had worked.

Past Perfect Continuous:e.g. I had been working.



Future Tense is used to express a future action by using the modal auxiliary verbs ‘shall’ and ‘will’ e.g.

I shall travel soon.

You will see the manager when he arrives.

Or by using the form ‘be going’ and ‘to’ infinitive or by using the present progressive and an expression indicating the future:

Examples: Emeka is going to succeed.

It is going to rain today.

Adamu is leaving tomorrow.


The future tense is also used to refer to a future action in a conditioned sentence; used to give a command or provide explanations, used in the passive form. Examples:

If you fail your exams, your father will scold you.

The meeting will start at eight sharp.

You will do what I say.

The fried rice will be cooked in a few minutes.

The swimming pool will be closed next week for renovations.

Evaluation: Write out the past tense and past participle forms of these verbs: split, swing, fight, drive choose, grind, make, mean, sew, shut, talk, put, see weep, taste.

Reading Assignment: The Student’s Companion by Chris Talbot, pages 84 – 94


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C. Topic: Comprehension

Content: Planting

This passage discusses the process of planting rice after the field to be used has been prepared thoroughly.

Evaluation: Effective English JS 2 p

40 practice 3 and 4



D. Topic: Vocabulary Development

vocabulary development english classnotesng

Content: Register on the Armed Forces

The armed forces include the army (for fighting on the land), the navy (for fighting at sea) the air force (for fighting in the air. The army, navy and air force are sometimes called the services. Let us look up the words on page 193. Effective English J S 2

Evaluation: Effective English J S 2 Practice 2p 196



E. Topic: Writing

essay writing english classnotesng

Content: Descriptive Essay (A Local Festival)

A descriptive essay is written to give the reader a mental picture of a person, place or object. That is to say, given a descriptive essay on a person. Place, object, the reader should be able to have a good picture of the person, place or object in his or her mind.

To write good descriptive essays, one must be a good observer and also must be able to choose specific details that recreate for the reader specific images.

The descriptive essay must cover different aspects of the subject or object of description e.g. physical traits, hobbies, likes, dislikes, psychological traits character, social traits, location when describing an event or place, time etc.

Features include the title, introduction, body and conclusion.

An Outline for A Local Festival

  • Paragraph 1 – introduction – brief description of festival and the particular one to be described.
  • Paragraph 2 – state what the festival is about, time and location
  • Paragraph3 – describe events such as people in attendance.
  • Paragraph 4 – describe the attires worn, food prepared and any spectacular thing observed.
  • Paragraph 5 – summarise and conclude.

Evaluation: Develop the outline into a comprehensive essay.

Reading Assignment: Effective English JS 2, page 74 – 75




Fill in the blanks using the present tense forms of the verbs suggested in brackets:

Most Cigarette smokers who ____(switch) to cigars ___ (believe) that they ___ (not, inhale) and therefore ___ (be) safe from the hazards of tobacco smoke. But a study by doctors at Central hospital, London ____ (show) that heavy cigarette smokers (tend) ____ to inhale deeply even when they ____ (inhale), the haemoglobin in his blood ___ (combine) with some carbon monoxide in the smoke to form a substance which ___ (prevent ) blood from performing its normal function; carrying oxygen. 


Complete each of the following sentence with the best option from the alternatives lettered A to E

  1. All the following except ____can be found in a court of law. (A) judges (B) police officers (C) magistrates (D) moderators (E) persecutors
  2. A country’s Armed Forces are made up of its ­­­­____ (A) Army, Navy and Air force (B) Police, Army and Air force (C) Judge, Air force and Police Forces (D) Army, Magistrates and Air Force (E) Navy, Army and Police Force
  3. The statement ‘The accused was acquitted and discharge means that the accused was ____ (A) found guilty and set free (B) found guilty but severely warned (C) found innocent and set free (D) found guilty and jailed (E) found guilty but conditionally set free
  4. The accused has ____ against the judgment. (A) written (B) spoken (C) decided (D) register (E) appealed
  5. Someone complained against in a court of law is the ___ (A) lawyer’s client (B) defendant (C) defence (D) plaintiff (E) accused


Effective English page 41 Practice 2; page 52, Tests 2 and 3



We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will review the Consonants /t/ /k/ /b/ /d/ & /g/. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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