Speechwork: Review of Consonants /t, k, b, d, g/


Welcome to Class !!

We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s English Language class, We will be reviewing the consonants /t, k, b, d, g/. We will also be looking at Present Tense & some vocabulary development. We hope you enjoy the class!


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  1. Speechwork: Review of Consonants /t, k, b, d, g/
  2. Grammar: Present Tense Aspects
  3. Reading: Broadcasting p. 53 – 54
  4. Vocabulary Development: Religion
  5. Writing: Review of Formal and Informal Letters


A. Topic: Consonants

Content: /p, t, k, b, d, g/

/p/                              /t/                   /k/                   /b/                  d/                    /g/

pin                              test                  cup                brush              dim                 goat

pit                               teeth              cut                  burn               dig                  aghast

keep                          burn            cake              book              wicked          grave

prompt                      step                kettle              rebuke           board            dug

contemporary        picked           quay              curb               designed

spoken                      acquaintance    rebuke


Evaluation: Write out five examples for each sound.

Reading Assignment: Exam Focus English JS 2, pages 142 – 144



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B. Topic: Reading Comprehension

Content: Broadcasting

The passage discusses the steps by which sound from the radio are heard and the ways in which TV pictures are sent to our TV sets.

 Evaluation: Answer the questions on the passage.

 Reading Assignment: Effective English JS 2 p. 54, practice 2 and 3.



C. Topic: Grammar

Tenses-english classnotesng

Content: Present Tense Aspect

Tense is a term used in grammar to indicate the time of an action or event. The present tense is used to show that an action takes place at present.

Example: She speaks English well.

We are fond of music.

The present tense is divided into four classes namely simple present tense, present continuous tense, present perfect tense, present perfect continuous tense.

  1. Simple Present Tense is used to indicate regular occurrences i.e. actions that take place regularly, sometimes, daily, weekly, often etc.

He speaks English well.

She writes very beautifully.

It rains today.

We like talking.

You stop here.

They believe God.

I hope to see you again.


  1. Present Continuous Tense is used to show what is really happening now. It is made with the be form of the verb: be+ progressive verb.

Example: am playing; are laughing


I am writing a letter.

She is reading a novel.

He is watching T.V.

You are sitting in the garden.

They are learning music.

We are laughing.


  1. Present Perfect Tense: expresses an action that occurred at an indefinite past time and that may still be going on. It is made with has or have + the past participle.

Example: has read, have read

I have read a novel.

We have waited for her.

You have waited for her.

He has stopped his work.

She has written a letter.

They have built the house.

It has rained heavily

Has she eaten her breakfast yet?

She has just left.


  1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used to show that an action has been taking place since a point of time in the past and in-progress till now. It is made with has/have + been + present participle.

She has been cooking since morning.

It has been raining heavily.

We have been waiting for her.

You have been building the house.


Evaluation: Write each sentence, completing it with the correct present tense of the verb in sentences.

  1. Rivers (be) often difficult to navigate.
  2. People (have) control over the level of the water.
  3. Water in a canal (do) not flow.
  4. Some canals (be) waterways that connect rivers.



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D. Topic: Vocabulary Development

Content: Religion

Religions generally seek to discover values and to attract men to them through worship and discipline.

Religion is a very powerful force and many have died for it. Of the many religions of the world today, only a few have large followers. These include Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Animism. There are, however, people who do not believe in group religion or in any god. These people are atheists.

Christianity is founded on the teaching of Jesus Christ and it has many denominations. The teachings of Jesus, the saviour are set forth in the Holy Bible. Christians called the ‘Holy Bible’. Christian doctrines teach God’s love and the crucifix is called the symbol of the Christian faith. Believing in communal worship, Christian gather in the church and pray. Christians are monotheists.


The Muslim believers in Islam and followers of the doctrines of Prophet Mohammed as set down in the ‘Holy Koran’. They believe in one God called ‘Allah’ and they worship in mosques on Fridays. According to the tenets of Islam, a good Muslim should go on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his lifetime. He should also pray five times a day and may marry more than one wife.

Religion is such a driving force and people who show excessive zest in religious issues are referred to as fanatics.


Evaluation: Write twenty words to do with religion and their meanings.

Reading Assignment: Exam Focus English JSCE page 113



E. Topic: Writing

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Content: Format of Informal and Formal letters

A letter is a piece of continuous writing by which you send a message to serve another person when you cannot speak to the person directly.

There are three kinds of letters, these are informal, formal and semi-formal letters. In this lesson, informal and formal letters will be the focus.

Informal letters, are also known as private letters, are the letters one writes to one’s close friends, classmates or relations who are younger or about one’s age.



  1. The writer’s address and the date at the top right-hand corner of the page.
  2. The salutation (opening greeting), close to the lefthand margin.
  3. Body: which consists of:
  4. The opening paragraph (concerned with greetings and pleasantries)
  5. The second and third paragraphs treat the main topic of the letter.
  6. Concluding paragraph (concerned with more greetings and with a message to those recipients of the letter.
  7. Complimentary closing


Other important features include:

  1. The use of shortened forms in the main body of the letter (it’s, you’d etc.)
  2. The use of informal words and expressions (e.g. mummy, daddy, grannie, damn terrible).
  3. The use of proverbs and jokes
  4. The use of simple and chatty language.


                                                                                                     Government Technical College,

                                                                     P.O Box 16,

                                                                                             Malunfashu, Katsina State,


                                                                          18th  July 2003.

Dear Ite,

Body of the letter

                                                            Yours sincerely,



A formal letter is an official/business letter. It is, therefore, the kind of letter you would write to your school principal or class teacher requesting to do something, to a police officer reporting a robbery incident, to a commissioner in your state pleading for help with a communication project etc.



  1. The writer’s address and the date at the top right-hand corner of the page.
  2. The recipient’s address at the left-hand corner of the page.
  3. The opening salutation below the recipient’s address and subject heading below the salutation, centre of the line.
  4. The body consists of the first paragraph which goes straight to the subject matter; the main body of the letter consisting of just a single paragraph where the need for the letter is carefully explained, the final paragraph expresses gratitude.
  5. The complimentary closing: yours faithfully
  6. The signature of the writer.
  7. The writer’s full name.






                                                                                                        Kollington, Alagabdo,

                                                                                         Lagos state.

                                                                                                  10th August, 2017.

The Supervisor,

Good Shepherd Schools,

3, OlayinkaStreet,

Omoroga, Meiran,

Lagos State.


Dear sir or Dear Madam,

Application for Permission to Be Absent from School


Body of the Letter


                                                                                                       Yours faithfully,


                                                                                                             Johnson Folakemi.

Evaluation: Differentiate between a formal and an informal letter.


Reading Assignment: Exam Focus English JSCE page 6 – 14.




Correct the following sentences:

  1. It is high time that you realize your mistake.
  2. She is having a long hair.
  3. I am teaching English language since 1990.
  4. I will return the book as soon as I read it.
  5. Kumari had entered the room when I was writing.



Choose the most appropriate options from the alternative given:

  1. Out of the following verbs, only __ is always transitive. (A) describe (B) sleep (C) eat
  2. In the sentence, “she ate the bread throughout the day”, the direct object is __ (A) she (B) the day (C) the bread
  3. In the sentence, “He spoke with enthusiasm”. The word ‘spoke’ is ___ (A) a transitive verb (B) a mono transitive verb (C) an intransitive verb
  4. Unfortunately, ‘He is now a complete gentleman’, the subject is __ (A) fortunately (B) He (C) a complete gentleman
  5. The passive form of the sentence ‘The bad road caused the accident’ is __ (A) The accident is caused by the bad road   (B) The accident was caused by the bad road  (C) The accident had been caused by the bad road




We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be contrasting the vowels /p/ and /t/. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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