Speechwork: consonant /h/


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We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s English Language class, We will be discussing the consonant /h/. We hope you enjoy the class!


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  1. Speechwork: consonant /h/
  2. Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech.
  3. Writing: formal Letter: A Letter of Invitation
  4. Literature


A. Topic: Consonant

Content /h/

hit, hood, hawk, home, herd, hide, hall, whole, who, whore, whom, head, behave, adhere, abhor, inhabit, perhaps, behold, behind, ahead, inhale, inhibit, rehearse, inherit.

/h/ does not occur at the end of a word and it is not pronounced in words like ‘hour’, ‘honour’, ‘honest’, ‘heir’, ‘vehicle’, ‘exhibit’ and ‘exhaust’.

Evaluation: Write out twenty examples for /h/.

Reading Assignment: Exam Focus English JSCE page 143 – 144



B. Topic: Speech

Content: Direct and Indirect Speech

What a person says can be shown by using direct speech or indirect speech.

  1. Direct Speech is the actual words of the speaker used within inverted commas.


I said, “I don’t understand you.”

She asked, “What are you doing here?”

The sweeper said, “There is nobody in the library.”


  1. Indirect Speech reports what a person said earlier to someone else without the use of inverted commas.


I said that I didn’t understand him.

She asked me what I was doing there.

The sweeper said that there was nobody in the library.


Points to Remember.

  • a. In indirect speech, the tense used follows that of the main verb in the direct speech


Direct: “I will help you,” she promised.

Indirect: She promised that she would help us.

  • b. Tense changes in reported speech. If the reporting verb is a present tense, the future tense remains unchanged.


Paloma says, “I shall go to Delhi tomorrow.”

Paloma says that she will go to Delhi tomorrow.


  • c. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the reported verb is subjected to change.

Direct speech                                 Indirect Speech

Simple present                                Simple Past

Present Continuous                       Past Continuous

Present Perfect                               Past perfect

Present perfect continuous         past perfect continuous

Simple past                                   past perfect

Past continuous                              past perfect continuous

Past perfect                                     No change

Past perfect continuous                     No change

Some Examples

  1. Direct: John said, “I cook rice every day.”

Indirect: John said that he cooked rice every day.

  1. Direct: John said, “I am cooking rice.”

Indirect: John said that he was cooking rice.

  1. Direct: John said, “I cooked rice”.

Indirect: John said he had cooked rice.

  1. Direct: John said, “I have cooked rice.”

Indirect: John said that he had cooked rice.

  1. Direct: John said, “I have been cooking rice.”

Indirect: John said that he had been cooking rice.

  1. Direct: John said, “I was cooking rice.”

Indirect: John said that he had been cooking rice.



  • d. Reported Speech expressing a universal truth or habitual fact is not changed. Example: My father said, “Honesty is the best policy.”

My father said that honesty is the best policy.

The teacher said “The earth moves round the sun.”

The teacher said that the sun moves round the sun.


  • e. Pronoun changes,

Direct                         Indirect

I/you                          he/she/they

You                            him/her/them

We                              they

My                              his/her

Your                           my

Our                             their

Me                              him/her, them

Us                                them



  • f. Change place and time

Direct                         Reported

Here                           there

Today                                    that day

These                         those

This morning                        that morning

Yesterday                 the day before

Tomorrow                the next day

Next week                the following week

Next month              the following month

Tonight                      that night

Ago                            before



Other examples:

  1. Sekinat asked, “Where is Chukwu?”

Sekinat asked us where Chukwu was.

  1. Lara said, “Would you like a cup of tea?”

Lara asked me whether/if I would like a cup of tea.

  1. Taiwo said, “Do your work quietly”

Mr Taiwo told us to do our work quietly.

  1. She said, “Sit down, please.”

She invited us to sit down.


Evaluations: Change the direct speech to reported speech.

  1. The professor said, “ I work all day.”
  2. He said, “I will be visiting Italy in December.”
  3. The weatherman announced, “It may rain today.”
  4. “I can be a great president,” said Martin.

Reading Assignment: Exam Focus English JSCE page 93 – 94; English Grammar by P.O

Olatunbosun page 90 – 94



C. Topic: Writing – A Formal Letter of Invitation

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In lecture four, you were taught a formal letter. Your task in this lesson is to write a formal letter of invitation.

Evaluation: Your school is organizing a talk show on the topic of Child abuse. As the secretary of the organizing committee of the school, write a formal letter of invitation to be sent out to neighbouring schools, highlighting the various benefits they stand to gain in the talk show.




Choose the correct option

  1. She didn’t know ____ when his boss called. (A) He was where (B) Where he was  (C) Was he where  (D) Where was he
  2. Malaria, which can be fatal let untreated, is transmitted by the female, ____ by the male mosquito. (A) Not (B) however. (C) despite  (D) instead.
  3. A good student must know _____ (A) to study hard (B) to be a good student  (C) how to study effectively  (D). the way of efficiency in study.
  4. Perspiration increases ____ vigorous exercise or hot weather. (A) during  (B) when  (C) at the time  (D). for
  5. Physical fitness exercises can cause injuries ____ the participants are not careful. (A) that (B) to (C) if  (D) with



  1. For each question, choose the best answer from the options given.
  2. “We’re going out for dinner tonight,” announced Dad. Dad told us that ______ (A) we were going out for dinner that night (B) we’re going out for dinner tonight  (C) we were going out for dinner the following night  (D) we would be going out for dinner the previous night.
  3. “Where’s the class monitor?” asked the headmaster. The headmaster wanted to know _____. (A) where was the class monitor (B) where the class monitor was (C) where is the class monitor  (D) where the class monitor would be.
  4. “I’m sure Ibrahim was not telling the truth when he spoke to us yesterday,” commented Abdullah. Abdullah commented that he was sure that Ibrahim was not ______. (A) tells them the truth when he speaking to them yesterday (B) told them the truth when he spoke to them yesterday  (C) telling them the truth when he spoken to them that day  (D) telling them the truth when he spoke to them the previous day
  5. “What are you doing here?” asked Asake. Asake asked me _____. (A) what am I doing here (B) what I was doing here  (C) what was I doing here    (D) what were I doing here
  6. “I’m going home now,” he said. He said that he was _____. (A) going home now  (B) going home then (C) went home now  (D) gone home then




We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

We have come to the end of this term. It’s been a remarkable journey and we are glad that you have made it this far. For making it this far, we commend you for being resilient, you have taken charge of your education and future. The Journey still continues though, we are moving on to Second Term. we hope to see there. 


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