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In today’s English Language class, We will be learning about Direct and Indirect Speech. We hope you enjoy the class!
Direct and Indirect Speech
Direct speech refers to the quoting by a speaker or writer, of the actual utterance of another speaker or writer. It contains all the actual words used by the original speaker.
Things to note about direct speech are:
- After the subject (speaker) and the verb, put a comma.
- Put quotation marks before you start writing the first words of his speech
- Write in capital the first letter of the first words of his speech
- Put the appropriate punctuation mark at the end of the speech. e.g., a full stop, a question mark, or an exclamation mark.
- Finally, close the speech with a quotation mark.
Rules Governing Indirect Speech
- After mentioning the speaker (subject) and the verb, the reported speech is introduced with the conjunction ‘that; where appropriate
- All the verbs in the present tense in a quotation must be changed to past tense, e.g, says to said; has to had; is to was; can to could; may to might; shall to should; will to would; but the verb must not be changed if it expresses a permanent truth or customary fact. E.g. He said that the world is round.
- All pronouns must be changed to the third person, e.g. I to he; me to him/her; we to they; our to their.
- All words of nearness must be changed to corresponding words of remoteness e.g. now to then, here to there; this to that; these to those; yesterday to the previous day, tomorrow to the next day, last week to the previous week and next year to the following year.
Study the examples below:
Evaluation: Do practice exercise sixteen of English Grammar for JSCE pg 70-72
Reading Assignment: Read more on Direct and Indirect Speech from English Grammar by Olatunbosun.
Reference: Countdown English Language by Ogunsanwo
Weekend Assignment: Effective English page 236-237, question 25-44
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In our next class, we will be learning about Active and Passive Voices. We are very much eager to meet you there.
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