Grammar (Phrasal Verbs and Idioms)


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In today’s English Language class, We will be learning about Phrasal Verbs and Idioms. We hope you enjoy the class!


verbs parts of speech english classnotesng



Grammar: Phrasal Verbs and Idioms


A phrasal verb is a group of words that consists of a verb and a particle, usually a preposition. We must understand that the meaning of a phrasal verb cannot be understood from the meanings of individual words taken in isolation. Rather, it has to be understood from the entire phrase.


Consider the following:

turndown > refuse: I turned down his offer.

give in > surrender: we refused to give in to the opponents.

put off > postpone: The meeting was put off till next week.

take to > like: Children take to whoever plays with them

take after > resemble: I take after my mother.

take in > understand: She took in everything the teacher said.




An Idiom is a group of words/ a phrase/ an expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words it is consisted of. In other words, an Idiom is an expression that has a special meaning.



Idioms                                                meanings

Fish in troubled waters                  try to get an advantage from a difficult situation

Not bat an eyelid                          show no surprise at all

Bite off more than one can chew.       try to do what one finds difficult

Put all your eggs in one basket depend on a single plan of action or person for success

Bury the hatchet                            stop disagreeing with each other

Pick holes in                                     to find the weak points

Kick the bucket                              die

Lion’s share                                      the largest part

Beat about the bush                                avoiding the important matter

Nip the crisis in the bud                prevent the crisis from developing further




Write the meaning of each of the following:

Bow down.

Come by

Set off

Take aback

Back up

Give up

Back out

Put out

Hand in



Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; Exam Focus; English Grammar by Olatunbosun



Read more about phrasal verbs and idioms on page 93-95 of English Grammar by Olatunbosun.



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Comprehension: Aikin Mata (A play)



  • Summary
  • Evaluation

The play is an extract from “Aikin Mata.” It features three characters- the dance leader, Alkali and Magajiya. The play shows how women abolished war by seizing power and control over all the money (kudi) in the land.



Do practice 2 on pages 190&191



Effective English for J.S.S 3



Read page 189 of Effective English for J.S.S 3


a) Use the following phrases in sentences.

has been, have been, is being, will be, will have done, will have been done.

b) Change the following sentences to the passive voice.

      1. I am kicking the ball.
      2. He has written two letters.
      3. He has warned the student
      4. They were changing the sentence
      5. The boy had written two letters when the rain started.



  1. Make a list of ten idioms and give their meanings.
  2. Do practice 2 on page 159 of Effective English bk3



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In our next class, we will be reading and summarising the text Village Boy. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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